. Bibliography - The European Perspective


Adamson, P. (2016). Philosophy in the Islamic World: A history of philosophy without any gaps, Volume 3. 1st Edition, Kindle Edition.

Al-Ghazali, A. H. (2000). The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Provo: Brigham Young University Press.

Al-Misri, A. i. N. (1994). Reliance of the Traveller. The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law. Edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller. Revised Edition. Beltsville, Maryland USA: Amana Publications.

Axelrod R. (1997). The Dissemination of Culture: A Model with Local Convergence and Global Polarization. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 1997; 41: 203–226.

Bethmann, E. W. (1953). Bridge to Islam. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Bleaney, M. & Dimico, A. (2016). Ethnic diversity and conflict. Journal of Institutional Economics (2017), 13: 2, 357–378.

Cochran, G. & Harpending, H. (2009). The 10,000 year explosion. How civilization accelerated human evolution. New York: Basic Books.

De, S., Gelfand, M.J., Nau, D. & Roos, P. (2015). The Inevitability of Ethnocentrism Revisited: Ethnocentrism Diminishes As Mobility Increases. Nature, 2015. Scientific Reports | 5:17963 | DOI: 10.1038/srep17963.

Dinesen, P.T. & Sønderskov, K.M. (2015). Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust: Evidence from the Micro-Context. American Sociological Review 2015, Vol. 80(3) 550–573.

Dutton, E. (2018). At Our Wits’ End: Why We’re Becoming Less Intelligent and What it Means for the Future. Societas.

Edis, T. (2009). Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship. In: Matthews, M. R. (Ed). Science, world views and education. Dordrecht:Springer.

Edwards, A. W. F. (2003). Human genetic diversity: Lewontin’s fallacy.  BioEssays 25 (8): 798–801.

Fakhry, M. (2009). Islamic Philosophy: A Beginner’s Guide. Kindle Books, Amazon Digital Services.

Goldziher, I. (1981). The attitude of orthodox Islam toward the ‘Ancient Sciences’. Studies in Islam. Edited and translated by Merlin L. Swartz. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1997). Mainstream science on Intelligence: An Editorial with 52 signatories, history and bibliography. Intelligence 24(1) 12-23.

Gouguenheim, S. (2008). Aristote au Mont Saint-Michel. Les racines grecques de L’Europe chrétienne. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.

Grant, E. (2013). A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grant, E. (2008). The Fate of Ancient Greek Natural Philosophy in the Middle Ages: Islam and Western Christianity. The Review of Metaphysics Vol. 61, No. 3 (Mar., 2008).

Grant, E. (2011). The Foundation of Modern Science in the Middle Ages. Their Religious, Institutional and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gutas, D. (1998). Greek thought, Arabic culture. New York: Routledge.

Haier, R. J. (2016). The neuroscience of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hammond, R. A. & Axelrod, R. (2006). The evolution of ethnocentrism. J. Confl. Resolut. 50, 926–936.

Hannam, J. (2009). God’s Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern Science. London: Icon Books.

Hazmy, W., Zainurashid, Z. & Hussaini, R. (?). Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists.  Published by: Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia N. Sembilan.

Hooghe, M., Reeskens, T., Stolle, D. & Trappers, A. (2009). Ethnic Diversity and Generalized Trust in Europe : A Cross-National Multilevel Study. Comparative Political Studies 2009 42: 198.

Huff, T. E. (2011). Intellectual Curiosity and the Scientific Revolution. A Global Perspective. Third Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huff, T. E. (2017). The Rise of Early Modern Science. Islam, China and the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Irwing, P., Hamza, A., Khaleefa, O. & Lynn, R. (2008). Effects of Abacus training on the intelligence of Sudanese children. Personality and Individual Differences 45 (2008) 694–696.

Jones, G. (2016). Hive mind. How your nation’s IQ matters so much more than your own. Stanford California: Stanford University Press.

Klasing, M.J. & Beugelsdijk, S. (2014). Cultural diversity and its Role for Trust Formation. CESifo Conference on Social Economics, Munich, 2014.

Kung, F.Y.H, Chao, M.M., Yao, D.J., Adair, W.L., Fu, J.H., Tasa, K. (2018). Bridging Racial Divides: Social Constructionist (vs. Essentialist) Beliefs Facilitate Trust in Intergroup Contexts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Lee, J.J., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G., Michael, A.M., Chabris, C.F. (2019). The causal influence of brain size on human intelligence. Intelligence, 75, 48-58.

Lewontin, R. C. (1972). The Apportionment of Human Diversity.  Evolutionary Biology. pp. 381–398.

Lindberg, D. C. (2007). The Beginnings of Western Science. The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, Prehistory to A.D. 1450. Second Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Liu, J.H., Campbell, S.M. (1995). Ethnocentrism in Dating Preferences for an American Sample: The In-Group Bias in Social Context. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1995, 25, 95-115.

Lynn, R. (1990). The role of nutrition in secular increases of intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 273–285.

Lynn, R. (2011). The Chosen People: A Study of Jewish Intelligence and Achievement. Washington Summit Publishers.

Lynn, R. (2015). Race Differences in Intelligence. An evolutionary analysis. Arlington: Washington Summit Publishers.

Lynn, R. & Becker, D. (2019). The Intelligence of Nations. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.

Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta (GA): Washington Summit.

Lynn, R., & Meisenberg, G. (2010). The average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas. Intelligence 38 (2010) 21–29.

Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2012). Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.

Marks, J. (2010). Ten facts about human variation. In: Muehlenbein, M.P (Ed) Human evolutionary biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 265-276.

MacKellar, L. (2015). La République islamique de France? A Review Essay. Population and Development Review, 42(2), 368-375.

Martin, M. (2013). Mu’tazila – use of reason in early Islamic theology. Amazon Digital Services LLC, Kindle Edition.

Martin, R. C., Woodward, M. & Atmaja, D. S. (1997). Defenders of Reason in Islam: Mu’tazililism from Medieval School to Modern Symbol. London: OneWorld Publications. Kindle Edition.

Murray, D. (2018). The Strange Death of Europe. London: Bloomsbury Continuum.

Naseem, H. (2001). Muslim philosophy science and mysticism. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.

Nyborg, H. Ed. (2013). Race and sex differences in intelligence and personality. A tribute to Richard Lynn at 80. London: Ulster Institute for Social Research.

Palairet, M. R. (2004). Review of IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Heredity, 92, 361-262.

Pedersen, J. (1984). The Arabic Book. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Plomin, R. (2018). Blueprint. How DNA makes us who we are. Allen Lane.

Posthuma, D., De Geus, E. J., Baaré, W. F., Pol, H. E. H., Kahn, R. S., & Boomsma, D. I. (2002). The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin. Nature neuroscience, 5(2), 83.

Putnam, R.D. (2007). E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century. The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture. Journal compilation © 2007 Nordic Political Science Association.

Qutb, S. (2009). In the Shade of the Qur’an. Islamic Foundation (UK).

Reilly, R. R. (2010). The Closing of the Muslim Mind. Wilmington: ISI Books.

Riolo, R.L., Cohen, M.D., & Axelrod, R. (2001). Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity. Nature, 414, 441-443.

Rindermann, H. (2007). The g-Factor of International Cognitive Ability Comparisons: The Homogeneity of Results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-Tests Across Nations. European Journal of Personality 21: 667–706 (2007).

Rushton, J. P., & Ankney, C. D. (2009). Whole brain size and general mental ability: a review. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(5), 692-732.

Saliba, G. (2011). Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Sarrazin, T. (2018). Feindliche übernahme. Wie der Islam den Fortschritt behindert und die Gesellschaft bedroht. München: FinanzBuch Verlag.

Sedgewick, C. (1996). Predestination, Pauline and Islamic: A study in contrasts. Vox Evangelica, Issue 26.

Stahl, G.K., Maznevski, M.L., Voigt, A. & Jonsen, K. (2010). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta-analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of International Business Studies (2010) 41, 690–709.

Stoet, G. & Geary, D. C. (2017). Students in countries with higher levels of religiosity perform lower in science and mathematics. Intelligence 62 (2017) 71–78.

Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the Social Group: A self-categorization Theory. New York: Blackwell.

von Grunebaum, G.E. (1955). Islam. Essays in the nature and growth of a cultural tradition. London and New York: Routledge.

Watt, W. M. (1952). The faith and practice of al-Ghazali. London: George Allen and Unwin.

Watt, W. M. (1985). Islamic philosophy and theology. An Extended Survey. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Watt, W. M. (1994). Islamic creeds. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Weinberg, S. (2016). To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science. New York: Harper Perennial.

Wicherts, J. M., Dolan, C. V., Carlson, J. S., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (2010). Raven’s test performance of sub-Saharan Africans: Average performance, psychometric properties, and the Flynn Effect. Intelligence 38 (2010) 1–20.

Witherspoon D.J., Wooding S., Rogers A.R., Marchani E.E., Watkins W.S., Batzer M.A., & Jorde L.B. (2007). Genetic Similarities Within and Between Human Populations. Genetics 176: 351–359.

Young, M. J. L., Latham, J. D.  & Serjeant, R. B.  Eds. (1990). Religion, Learning and Science in the ‘Abbasid Period (The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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