Many people in academia, politics and media state that Islamic civilization played a “decisive” role in establishing European cultural identity. Thus, a “debt” to Islam is supposed to exist in at least two ways.
Ideas + History
1286 years ago, in the month of October, somewhere between Tours and Poitiers in current-day France, a European army stopped a Muslim invasion into the heart of France.
Toby E. Huff is a sociologist by training, research associate at Harvard University’s Department of Astronomy and Professor Emeritus in Policy studies at the University of Massachusetts. He has written extensively about cultural comparisons in…