Europe pulled itself out of its “Dark Ages”, by its own effort. A number of “renaissances” during the Middle Ages were important mile stones in this development.
Many people in academia, politics and media state that Islamic civilization played a “decisive” role in establishing European cultural identity. Thus, a “debt” to Islam is supposed to exist in at least two ways.
Toby E. Huff is a sociologist by training, research associate at Harvard University’s Department of Astronomy and Professor Emeritus in Policy studies at the University of Massachusetts. He has written extensively about cultural comparisons in…