.National identity – The European Perspective

National identity

Identity and pride, Part 1: Introduction

Pride—and its opposites, shame and guilt—are emotions related to your personal identity but also to your identity as belonging to a group, a nation, a culture or an ethnicity. This series analyzes these feelings and their broader implications.



Language and Nation: Finland, Part 1. Swedish rule

Around 1000 A.D. Scandinavia saw momentous changes: the previously Viking-ruled areas organized themselves into kingdoms—Denmark, Norway and Sweden—and embraced Roman Catholic Christianity as religion.

Across the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland stayed behind in these developments …